Deliberate Creation of Multiple
Personality by Psychiatrists

By Colin A. Ross MD

A 10-Page Summary

In this summary of Bluebird, Dr. Ross describes unethical experiments conducted by psychiatrists to create amnesia, new identities, hypnotic access codes, and new memories in the minds of experimental subjects. His research is based on 15,000 pages of documents obtained under the Freedom of Information Act. Dr. Ross is a past president of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation. Join in powerfully creating a better world for all by spreading the word.

Historical Background

The Manchurian Candidate is compelling evidence for the reality of therapist-created multiple personality disorder. The condition has been created deliberately by mind control doctors. Experiments to create Manchurian Candidate “super spies” must be understood in their social and historical context, which is one of pervasive, systematic mind control experimentation, not by a few isolated renegade doctors, but by the leaders of psychiatry and the major medical schools. Because this book is likely to provoke extreme reactions, I have taken great care to present only facts which are fully documented and based on objective, public domain information. P. E

The basic premise of the book The Manchurian Candidate [1] is that a group of American POWs in the Korean War is brainwashed while crossing through Manchuria to freedom. They arrive back in the US amnesic for the period of brainwashing, and one of them has been programmed to be an assassin. His target is a candidate for president of the US. His Asian handlers control him with a hypnotically implanted trigger, a particular playing card. P. 23

Multiple personality disorder is now classified by the American Psychiatric Association [2] as dissociative identity disorder. According to my definition, the Manchurian Candidate is an experimentally created dissociative identity disorder that meets the following four criteria:

  • Created deliberately
  • A new identity is implanted
  • Amnesia barriers are created
  • Used in simulated or actual operations

That the CIA created Manchurian Candidates is a fact, and easy to understand and justify from a national security perspective. I am not criticizing the CIA or the military in this book because I am not an expert on intelligence matters. I am a psychiatrist specializing in dissociative disorders. P. G

BLUEBIRD blows the whistle on extensive political abuse of psychiatry in North America in the second half of the 20th century. Many thousands of prisoners and mental patients were subjected to unethical mind control experiments by leading psychiatrists and medical schools. Organized academic psychiatry has never acknowledged this history. The network of mind control doctors involved in BLUEBIRD has done a great deal of harm to the field of psychiatry and to psychiatric patients. My goal is to break the ugly silence. P. K

The participation of psychiatrists and medical schools in mind control research was not a matter of a few scattered doctors pursuing questionable lines of investigation. Rather, the mind control experimentation was systematic, organized, and involved many leading psychiatrists and medical schools. The mind control experiments were interwoven with radiation experiments, and research on chemical and biological weapons. They were funded by the CIA, Army, Navy, Air Force, and by other agencies including the Public Health Service and the Scottish Rite Foundation. The psychiatrists, psychologists, neurosurgeons, and other contractors conducting the work were imbedded in a broad network of doctors, and much of the research was published in medical journals. The climate was permissive, supportive, and approving of mind control experimentation. P. F, 1

The work of the mind control doctors did not occur in a vacuum. The importation of Nazi doctors to the US through secret programs like PAPERCLIP is part of the context. After the end of World War II, German scientists and technical experts were being held in a variety of detainment camps. The British, French, Americans, and Russians became embroiled in highly competitive recruiting efforts to secure the services of these German specialists. The prospect of losing the industrial and scientific services of these German experts lead to the creation of Project PAPERCLIP. [3][4][5] Over 1,000 German scientists were secretly brought into the US without State Department approval. The most famous individual brought over in this manner was Werner von Braun, the rocket scientist. Von Braun was the head of the German V2 rocket program. The NASA rockets that took Neil Armstrong to the moon were built by von Braun and his colleagues. Medical doctors also came over under PAPERCLIP. P. 3, 4

Likewise, the Tuskeegee Syphilis Study helps us understand how mind control experimentation was not only tolerated by medical professionals, but published in peer-reviewed literature. [6][7] The Study, started in Alabama in 1932, was run by the Public Health Service. 399 illiterate, poor rural black men with syphilis were recruited as subjects, along with 201 controls without syphilis. The purpose of the Study was to make sure the 399 men never got treatment. The subjects and their families weren’t told they had syphilis and didn’t know it was treatable. They were told that they had bad blood. P. 1, 9, 10

The cure for syphilis, penicillin, was introduced in the early 1940’s. It was withheld from the Tuskeegee men for 30 years. The published results of the Study showed the men with untreated syphilis were sicker and died younger than controls. [8] How many women were infected with syphilis because these men were deliberately not treated? How many children were born with syphilis because of the Study? The Tuskeegee Syphilis Study was eventually shut down in 1972 because of the efforts of an investigative journalist. There is no evidence to suggest that the government or the medical progression had any intention of closing the study as of 1972. People and organizations that knew about the Study included the Surgeon General, the American Heart Association, and the Center for Disease Control. Throughout its 40-year course, the Tuskeegee Study was praised and received various honors. P. 9-13

The Tuskeegee Study establishes that a large network of doctors and organization were willing to participate in, fund, and condone grossly unethical medical experimentation into the 1970’s. The Study proves that considerable external pressure is often required before the medical profession takes the necessary action to terminate such experimentation. P. 14

Unethical radiation experiments were conducted on about 600 subjects [9][10][11] in the US beginning in the 1940’s and running into the 1970’s. Many people were injected with plutonium and exposed to other forms of radiation without their informed consent. 18 patients were injected with plutonium in an experiment run by the MANHATTAN PROJECT. Prisoners in Washington and Oregon state prisons were paid to have their testicles irradiated. They got $5 a month for the irradiation. During the experiment, which ran from 1963 to 1971, the subjects’ testicles were exposed to 600 roentgen of radiation, which is 100 times the maximum recommended dose. P. 15-17

Clouds of radioactive material were released into the atmosphere and tracked as they moved downwind, often through populated areas. In one experiment code-named GREEN RUN, radioactive iodine-131 released from the Hanford Nuclear Facility drifted over Spokane. The cloud contained hundreds of times as much radiation as was released accidentally at Three Mile Island in 1979. P. 17

As was true of mind control and biological weapon research, radiation research experiments were conducted on children and unwitting civilians. In 1961, researchers at Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Boston University School of Medicine gave radioactive iodine to seventy retarded children at Wrentham State School. At Fernald School, MIT gave radioactive substances to children by putting it in their food. No risks of radioactivity were mentioned in the consent form signed by the parents. The consent form stated that the purpose of the experiments was “helping to improve the nutrition of our children.” Dr. Saul Krugman of New York University and his staff deliberately injected severely mentally retarded children at Willowbrook State School with hepatitis virus in the 1950’s and 1960’s, [12] funded by the Army Medical Research and Development Command. To date there has been no compensation for victims of unethical biological experiments. P. 15, 18, 19

Army doctors were actively involved in LSD testing at least until the late 1970’s. Subjects of LSD experiments included children as young as five years old, and brain electrodes were implanted in children as young as 11 years of age. Four of the CIA’s MKULTRA Subprojects were on children. The mind control doctors included Presidents of the American Psychiatric Association and psychiatrists who received full-page obituaries in theAmerican Journal of Psychiatry. Responsibility for the unethical experimentation lies first with the individual doctors, but also collectively with the medical profession and with academia as a whole. P. 21

Cold War Mind Control Experimentation

BLUEBIRD was approved by the CIA director on April 20, 1950. In August 1951, the Project was renamed ARTICHOKE. BLUEBIRD and ARTICHOKE included a great deal of work on the creation of amnesia, hypnotic couriers, and the Manchurian Candidate. [13][14] ARTICHOKE documents prove that hypnotic couriers functioned effectively in real-life simulations conducted by the CIA in the early 1950’s. The degree to which such individuals were used in actual operations is still classified. P. 23

The BLUEBIRD and ARTICHOKE documents available through the Freedom of Information Act, like all such documents, are heavily redacted. A great deal of text has been whited out, and other documents must still be entirely classified. BLUEBIRD and ARTICHOKE were administered in a compartmented fashion. The details of the programs were kept secret even form other personnel within the CIA. When asked why LSD research done under ARTICHOKE was hidden from the CIA Committee in charge of ARTICHOKE, Sydney Gottlieb, Chief, Medical Staff, Technical Services Division, CIA, responded, “I imagine the only reason would have been concern for broadening awareness of its existence.” P. 25, 27

An article in the February 18, 1979 Wilmington Sunday News Journal states: “The ARTICHOKE interrogation was conducted in a safe house in the remote countryside staffed by security-cleared personnel. It was conducted under medical cover of a routine physical and psychological assessment. The Subject was transported to the safe house in a ‘covert car.’ At the safe house he was given a conventional interrogation and then some whiskey. This was followed by two grams of Phenobarbital, which put him to sleep. The next day a lie detector test was given, and the Subject was given intravenous chemicals. Following the chemically-assisted interrogation, the ARTICHOKE techniques were applied in three stages. A false memory was introduced into the Subject’s mind without his conscious control of the process. The procedure was repeated again with interrogation added.” P. 28

ARTICHOKE operations involved detailed, systematic creation of specific amnesia barriers, new identities and hypnotically implanted codes and triggers. An ARTICHOKE document dated 7 January 1953 [15] describes the experimental creation of multiple personality in two 19-year old girls by the CIA. “H” is used as shorthand for hypnotic, hypnotized, or hypnotism: “These subjects have clearly demonstrated that they can pass from a fully awake state to a deep H controlled state via the telephone, via some very subtle signal that cannot be detected by other persons in the room, and without the other individuals being able to note the change. It has been clearly shown that physically, individuals can be induced into H by telephone, by receiving written matter, or by the use of code, signal, or words, and that control of those hypnotized can be passed from one individual to another without great difficulty. It has also been shown by experimentation with these girls that they can act as unwilling couriers for information purposes, and that they can be conditioned to a point where they believe a change in identity on their part even on the polygraph.” P. 32

Another ARTICHOKE document describes “Analogous Case #3.” “A CIA Security Office employee was hypnotized and given a false identity. She defended it hotly, denying her true name and rationalizing with conviction the possession of identity cards made out to her real self. Later, having had the false identity erased by suggestion, she was asked if she had ever heard of the name she had been defending as her own five minutes before. She thought, shook her head, and said, ‘That’s a pseudo if I ever heard one.’ Apparently she had true amnesia for the entire episode.” P. 32, 33

In an experiment described in a document entitled “SI and H experimentation [16] (25 September 1951)”, two female subjects took part in an exercise involving the planting of a bomb. Both subjects performed perfectly and were fully amnesic for the exercise: “[Whited out] was instructed that upon awakening, she would proceed to [whited out] room where she would wait at the desk for a telephone call. Upon receiving the call, a person known as “Jim” would engage her in normal conversation. During the course of the conversation, this individual would mention a code word. When she heard this code word, she would pass into a SI trance state, but would not close her eyes and remain perfectly normal and continue the telephone conversation. P. 37

She was told that upon conclusion of the telephone conversation, she would then carry out instructions: [Whited out] was shown an electric timing device. She was informed that this device was a bomb, and then instructed how to set the device. After [whited out] learned how to set and attach the device, she was told to take the timing device which was in a briefcase, and proceed to the ladies room. In the ladies room, she would be met by a girl whom she had never seen who would identify herself by the code word “New York.” [whited out] was then to show this individual how to attach and set the timing device and further instructions would be given that the timing device was to be carried in the briefcase to [whited out] room, placed in the nearest empty electric-light plug and concealed in the bottom, left-hand drawer of [whited out] desk, with the device set for 82 seconds and turned on.” P. 37, 38

The BLUEBIRD/ARTICHOKE materials establish conclusively that full Manchurian Candidates were created and tested successfully by physicians with TOP SECRET clearance from the CIA. P. 61

As well as being potential couriers and infiltration agents, the subjects could function in effect as hypnotically controlled cameras. They could enter a room or building, memorize materials quickly, leave the building, and then be amnesic for the entire episode. The memorized material could then be retrieved by a handler using a previously implanted code or signal, without the amnesia being disturbed. Hypnosis was not the mind control doctors’ only method for creation of controlled amnesia, however. Drugs, magnetic fields, sound waves, sleep deprivation, solitary confinement, and many other methods were studied under BLUEBIRD and ARTHICHOKE. P. 38

Another problem addressed repeatedly in the documents is called “The Problem of Disposal of Subjects.” Several personnel recommended the use of lobotomies for this purpose, but according to the documents this was rejected as too unethical and too high a negative publicity risk for the CIA. P. 41

The usage of electric shock to the brain for the creation of amnesia with hypnosis was discussed by an ARTICHOKE document dated 3 December 1951: “[Whited out] is reported to be an authority on electric shock. He is a psychiatrist of considerable note. [Whited out] explained that electric shock might be of considerable interest to the ‘Artichoke’ type of work. He stated that the standard electric-shock machine (Reiter) could be used. He stated that using this machine with convulsive treatment, he could guarantee amnesia for certain periods of time, and particularly he could guarantee amnesia for any knowledge of use of the convulsive shock. He stated that the lower setting of the machine produced a different type of shock. When this lower current type of shock was applied without convulsion, it had the effect of making a man talk. He said that this type of shock produced in the individual excruciating pain. He stated that there would be no question that the individual would be quite willing to give information if threatened with the use of this machine. It was [whited out] opinion that an individual could gradually be reduced through the use of electro-shock treatment to the vegetable level.” P. 44


ARTICHOKE and BLUEBIRD were administratively rolled over into MKULTRA, which was created by the CIA on April 3, 1953. MKULTRA was in turn rolled over into MKSEARCH on June 7, 1964. MKSEARCH then ran until June 1972, at which time extensive shredding of MKULTRA and MKSEARCH files was ordered by the Director of the CIA, Richard Helms. The surviving MKULTRA documents can be obtained from the CIA under the Freedom of Information Act. There was a round of declassification of mind control documents in the 1970’s which were the foundation of books published in the 1970’s and 1980’s.[17][18][19][20][21][22][23] P. 7

A document entitled, “Hypnotic Experimentation and Research, 10 February 1954” [24] describes a simulation experiment of relevance to the creation of Manchurian Candidate assassins: “Miss [whited out] was then instructed (having previously expressed a fear of firearms) that she would use every method at her disposal to awaken miss [whited out] (now in a deep hypnotic sleep), and failing this, she would pick up a pistol nearby and fire it at Miss [whited out]. She was instructed that her rage would be so great that she would not hesitate to “kill” [whited out] for failing to awaken. Miss [whited out] carried out these suggestions to the letter including firing the (unloaded) gun at [whited out] and then proceeding to fall into a deep sleep. After proper suggestions were made, both were awakened and expressed complete amnesia for the entire sequence. Miss [whited out] was again handed the gun, which she refused (in an awakened state) to pick up or accept form the operator. She expressed absolute denial that the foregoing sequence had happened.” P. 36, 37

MKULTRA was divided into 149 Subprojects. One group of Subprojects involved the development and testing of mind control drugs. The goal of these Subprojects was to identify compounds which would assist in interrogation and in the creation of amnesia. The CIA sponsored LSD research through MKULTRA. It also financed LSD conferences and books. An undated document entitled “D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LDS-25),” states “Some of the more outstanding effects are the mental confusion, helplessness, and extreme anxiety which are produced by minute doses of this substance. Based upon these reactions, its potential use in offensive psychological warfare and in interrogation is considerable, and it may become one of the most important of the psychochemical agents.” P. 47, 51, 54, 73

Unethical practice by physicians and the direct involvement of pharmaceutical companies are part of the history of hallucinogens. Under TOP SECRET clearance, Eli Lilly Company was given a $400,000 grant in 1953 to manufacture and supply LSD to the CIA. Army LSD research was ongoing in 1977 when LSD was a controlled substance. At least 1,500 soldiers were given LSD without informed consent as part of Army mind control experiments. These facts have never been subject to ethical review or any policy or position statement by any medical organization. P. 52, 53, 68, 73

Frank Olson was a Fort Detrick biological warfare expert who committed suicide in 1953 after being given LSD hidden in liqueur by Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, Director of MKULTRA. Olson’s family determined that he had committed suicide subsequent to a bad LSD trip only after reading Nelson Rockefeller’s 1975 report on the CIA, published 22 years after Olsen’s death. They were given $750,000 in compensation by Congress. P. 49

Biological warfare (BW) and chemical warfare (CW) research involved testing in many locations. CW research involved releasing bacteria and viruses into general population areas. The bacterium Serratia marascens was released in New York (June 1966), San Francisco (September 1950), and Pennsylvania (January 1955). A paper in the Archives of Internal Medicine describes eleven Serratia marascensinfections observed in one San Francisco hospital between September 1950 and February 1951. The paper was published because Serratia marascens infections are very rare. P. 68, 69

MKULTRA Subproject 35 involved funding the construction of the Gorman Annex at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, DC. The total budget for the Annex of $1.25 million was to provide a hospital safe house for mind control research. One sixth of the space was set aside for the CIA, which placed three biochemists there under cover. P. 55

Another group of Subprojects consists of experiments and research on non-chemical mind control. This group of Subprojects is about one quarter of the total MKULTRA Subprojects. It involves most of the contractors with unwitting status. Unwitting contractors are ones who do not realize that the research money is from the CIA because it has been funneled through a cutout or front organization. By and large, the psychologists and sociologists were unwitting contractors, while the physicians, chemists, and the biologists had TOP SECRET clearance and were aware that they were working for the CIA. In CIA terminology, these people werewitting. P. 54

Like the Tuskeegee Syphilis Study and the radiation research, MKULTRA involved direct experimentation on children without informed consent being given by their parents or guardians. In the case of the Tuskeegee Study, children were harmed by preventable congenital syphilis. In the radiation experiments, they were harmed through direct expose after birth or in utero exposure during experiments on their mothers. [25] Four of the MKULTRA Subprojects involved research on children. The deliberate creation of multiple personality in children is an explicitly stated plan in the MKULTRA Subproject Proposal submitted for funding on May 30, 1961. P. 56, 61

The Mind Control Doctors – Dr. Ewen Cameron

Throughout the 20th century, academic psychiatry provided no public commentary, ethical guidance, or moral oversight of any kind concerning mind control experimentation, despite the fact that the leading psychiatrists and medical schools were well funded by the CIA and military for mind control research. Mental patients, cancer patients, prisoners, and unwitting citizens were experimented on by mind control doctors at Yale, Harvard, McGill, Stanford, UCLA, and other major universities. These human guinea pigs were never told that they were subjects in military and CIA mind control experiments, and they never gave informed consent. They received no systematic follow-up to document the harm done to them. The welfare of the “human subjects” was not a relevant variable in the academic equation.” The mind control doctors saw their patients as biological machines, a view which made them sub-human, and therefore easier to abuse in mind control experiments. P. 91, 126

The MKULTRA contractor about whom the most has been written is Dr. Ewen Cameron.[26][27][28][29][30][31][32] Dr. Cameron began conducting unethical and inhumane brainwashing experiments at Brandon mental Hospital in the 1930’s. Schizophrenic patients were forced to lie naked in red light for eight hours a day for periods as long as eight months. Another experiment involved overheating patients in an electric cage until their body temperatures reached 102 degrees. Dr. Cameron massively over-utilized coma therapy by putting patients in coma for 2 to 5 hours per day for up to 50 days in a row. At various times, Dr. Cameron was President of the Quebec, Canadian, American, and World Psychiatric Associations. He was one of four co-founders of the World Psychiatric Association. P. 125-129

In a paper published in the American Journal of Psychiatry entitled “Psychic Driving,” Dr. Cameron [33]describes his brainwashing techniques. Psychic driving was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, patients were depatterned, which meant reduced to a vegetable state through a combination of massive amounts of electroconvulsive shock, drug-induced sleep and sensory isolation. When fully depatterned, patients were incontinent of urine and feces, unable to feed themselves, and unable to state their name, location, or the date. In the second stage, psychic driving was introduced. This consisted of hundreds of hours of tape loops being played to the patient through earphones, special helmets, or speakers in the sensory isolation room. Dr. Cameron received a grant from Canada’s Department of Health and Welfare for $57,750 for the years 1961 to 1964 for “A Study of Factors Which Promote or Retard Personality Change in Individuals Exposed to Prolonged Repetition of Verbal Signals.” P. 129, 131

Linda MacDonald was a victim of Dr. Ewen Cameron’s unethical, destructive mind control experiments between May 1 and September 12, 1963. Dr. Cameron used a “treatment” which involved intensive application of three brainwashing techniques; drug disinhibition, prolonged sleep treatment, and prolonged psychological isolation. These were combined with ECT [Electro Convulsive Therapy] treatments. The amount of electricity introduced into Linda’s brain exceeded by 76.5 times the maximum amount recommended in the ECT Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association. Dr. Cameron proved that doctors skilled in the right procedures can erase a subject’s memory. His depattering technique resulted in permanent and complete amnesia. To this day, Linda MacDonald is unable to remember anything from her birth to 1963. As recorded by nurses in her chart, Linda was reduced to a vegetable state by depatterning. She was completely disoriented. She didn’t know her name, age or where she was. She didn’t recognize her children. She couldn’t read, drive, cook, or use a toilet. Not only did she not know her husband, she didn’t even know what a husband was. P. 181-183

There is a connection to politics, power, and weapons in Linda MacDonald’s life. Her husband worked for the Canadian Armament Research Development Establishment. His immediate boss was a man who sold arms to Saddam Hussein. His boss was also tied into the Iran-Contra affair, and was murdered in Europe a few years ago. P. 186

Life changed for Linda when the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation program, The Fifth Estate, aired a segment on Dr. Cameron on January 17, 1984. A Vancouver newspaper ran a full-page story on Robert Loggie, a Vancouver man who had been experimented on by Dr. Cameron. Loggie was a plaintiff in the class action suit against the CIA for Dr. Cameron’s MKULTRA experiments, which was settled out of court for $750,000, divided among the eight plaintiffs. Linda’s mother phoned her about the program. Linda shook a lot in reaction to the news and didn’t know what to do. Through a reporter she got in touch with a Washington lawyer representing the eight Canadian plaintiffs. He advised Linda that she could not be a party to the class action suit against the CIA because she was ‘treated’ by Dr. Cameron after his CIA funding had stopped. The Canadian government had picked up the funding by 1963. Eventually she got $100,000 plus legal fees from the Canadian government. P. 187, 188

The fact that Dr. Cameron’s unethical, inhumane, and grossly damaging experiments were published in the psychiatric literature [34][35][36] is a condemnation of the editorial standards of the journals, not a vindication of Dr. Cameron. P. 132

Dr. G. H. Estabrooks

G.H. Estabrooks is the only mind control doctor who has publicly acknowledged the building of Manchurian Candidates. In his book Spiritism, [37] Dr. Estabrooks describes experiments done to create multiple personality by military psychiatrist Dr. P.L. Harriman. [38][39][40] In his book Hypnotism, [41] Dr. Estabrooks states that the creation of experimental multiple personality for operational use in military subjects, whom he refers to as super spies, is ethical because of the demands of war. He comments in a chapter entitled “Hypnotism in Warfare” that: “the hand of the military must not be tied by any silly prejudices in the minds of the general public. War is the end of all law. In the last analysis any device is justifiable which enables us to protect ourselves from defeat.” P. 159, 162

In a May 13, 1968 article in the Providence Evening Bulletin, [42] Estabrooks is described as a former consultant for the FBI and CIA, and is quoted as saying that, “the key to creating an effective spy or assassin rests in splitting a man’s personality, or creating multipersonality, with the aid of hypnotism. This is not science fiction. This has and is being done. I have done it.” P. 162

Dr. Estabrooks’ proposal to the CIA dated June 22, 1954 states: “In deep hypnosis the subject, military or civilian, can be given a message to be delivered to say Colonel X in Berlin. The message will be perfectly safe and delivered to the proper person because the subject will have no memory whatsoever in the waking state as to the message. It can be arranged that the subject will have no knowledge of ever having been hypnotized. It can be arranged that no one beside Colonel X in Berlin can hypnotize the subject and recover the message….I will take a number of men and will establish in them through the use of hypnotism the condition of split personality. Consciously they will be ardent Communists, fanatical adherents to the party line. Unconsciously they will be loyal Americans determined to thwart the Communists at every turn. These men will have no knowledge of ever having been hypnotized, and can only be hypnotized by such persons as the original operator may choose. Consciously they will associate with the Communists and learn all their plans. Once every month they, as loyal Americans, will tell what they know. This sounds unbelievable, but I assure you, it will work.” P. 163, 165

In a 1971 article in Science Digest, Dr. Estabrooks [43] claimed to have created hypnotic couriers and counterintelligence agents for operational use: “The ‘hypnotic courier’ provides a unique solution. I was involved in preparing army subjects for this work during World War II. One successful case involved an Army Captain. He was an excellent subject but did not realize it. I removed from him, by post hypnotic suggestion, all recollection of ever having been hypnotized. I put him under deep hypnosis, and gave him – orally – a vital message to be delivered directly on his arrival in Japan to a certain colonel – let’s say his name was Brown – of military intelligence. Outside of myself, Colonel Brown was the only person who could hypnotize Captain Smith. This is ‘locking.’ I performed it by saying to the captain, ‘We will use the phrase ‘the moon is clear. Whenever you hear this phrase from Brown or myself you will pass instantly into deep hypnosis.’ When Captain Smith re-awakened, he had no conscious memory of what happened in trance. The system is virtually foolproof.” P. 167, 168

By the 1920’s not only had [clinical hypnotists] learned to apply posthypnotic suggestion, but also had learned to split certain complex individuals into multiple personalities like Jeckyl-Hydes. During World War II, I worked this technique with a vulnerable Marine lieutenant I’ll call Jones. I split his personality into Jones A and Jones B. Jones A, once a “normal” working Marine, became entirely different. He talked communist doctrine and meant it. He was welcomed enthusiastically by communist cells, and was deliberately given a dishonorable discharge by the Corps and became a card-carrying party member. Jones B was the deeper personality, knew all the thoughts of Jones A, was a loyal American and was “imprinted” to say nothing during conscious phases. All I had to do was hypnotize the whole man, get in touch with Jones B, the loyal American, and I had a pipeline straight into the Communist camp. It worked beautifully for months.” P. 169

Dr. Estabrooks did experiments on children. He corresponded with FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover about using hypnosis to interrogate juvenile delinquents. His experimentation on children raises the possibility that investigators have attempted to create Manchurian Candidates in children. Such a possibility might seem far-fetched until one considers the LSD, biological and radiation experiments conducted on children, the fact that four MKULTRA Subprojects were on children, and that hypnotic subjects described in the CIA documents include girls 19 years of age. P. 176, 177

Other Mind Control Doctors

Dr. Harold Wolff, a Professor of Medicine at Cornell, was a director of the CIA cutout [front organization], The Human Ecology Foundation, and the investigator of MKULTRA Subproject 61. Dr. Wolff’s accomplishments include being President of the American Neurological Association and editor of Archives of Neurology. [44] P. 85

Dr. Martin Orne [45][46] is one of the leading experts on hypnosis of the 20th century. For about 30 years, he was the editor of The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. He is one of two psychiatrists professionally active into the late 1990’s who is a documented CIA mind control contractor, along with Dr. Louis Jolyon West. [47] Dr. West, who killed an elephant with LSD [48] at Oklahoma City Zoo, had TOP SECRET clearance with the CIA and the military. P. 81, 121, 124

Dr. William Sweet [49] participated in both brain electrode implant experiments and the injection of uranium into medical patients at Harvard University. The 925-page Final Report. Advisory Committee on Human radiation Experiments tells the story of the radiation experiments, and their linkage to mind control. [50] P. 1

Brain Implants

A CIA memorandum for MKULTRA Subproject 142 describes the control of animals through stimulation of brain electrodes. The overall goal was clear; to control the mind and behavior, and to create dissociation through a combination of drugs, sensory isolation, hypnosis, brain electrode implants, electric shock, and beaming different kinds of energy at the brain. The ability to create limited, controlled amnesia through a variety of methods was a primary goal of the mind control programs. P. 87

Brain electrode experiments were also conducted in humans. Dr. Jose Delgado, [51][52][53][54][55][56][57] a neurosurgeon and professor at Yale, received funding for brain electrode research on children and adults. He was able to control the movements of his animal and human subjects by pushing buttons on a remote transmitter box. In one paper, Dr. Delgado describes the cats as “mechanical toys.” An 11-year old boy underwent a partial change of identity upon remote stimulation of his brain electrode: [58] “Electrical stimulation of the superior temporal convolution induced feminine striving and confusion about his own sexual identity. For example, the patient, an 11-year old boy, said, ‘I was thinking whether I was a boy or a girl, which one I’d like to be,’ and ‘I’d like to be a girl.’ After one of the stimulations the patient suddenly began to discuss his desire to get married to the male interviewer. Temporal-lobe stimulation produced in another patient open manifestations and declarations of pleasure, accompanied by giggles and joking with the therapist. In two adult female patients stimulation of the same region was followed by discussion of marriage and expression of a wish to marry the therapist. P. 87-89

Brain electrode research was also conducted independently at Harvard by Dr. Delgado’s coauthors, Drs. Vernon Mark, Frank Ervin, and William Sweet. Mark and Ervin describe implanting brain electrodes in a large number of patients at Harvard hospitals. A patient named Jennie was 14 years old when they put electrodes in her brain. In Mark and Ervin’s Violence and the Brain, [59] photographs show 18-year old Julia smiling, angry, or pounding the wall depending on which button is being pushed on the transmitter box sending signals to her brain electrodes. P. 89-91

Dr. Heath, [60][61][62] Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry and Neurology at Tulane University, placed brain electrodes in a young homosexual man and fitted him with a box. A button on the box could be used to electrically stimulate an electrode implanted in the septal region of his brain, a pleasure center. During one three-our period, the patient, referred to as B-19, stimulated himself 1,500 times. [63] “During these sessions, B-19 stimulated himself to a point that he was experiencing an almost overwhelming euphoria and elation, and had to be disconnected, despite his vigorous protests. P. 94

Non-lethal Weapons

Non-lethal weapons is a broad category which includes devices for beaming various kinds of energy at human targets in order to temporarily incapacitate them, or to control or affect their behavior. Non-lethal weapons research has been conducted at universities in the US on contract to the CIA, and has overlapped with research on hallucinogens and brain electrode implants. Funding of the experiments began in MKULTRA. P. 103

Subproject 62 documents “certain kinds of radio frequency energy have been found to effect reversible neurological changes in chimpanzees.” Subproject 54 was studying how to produce concussions from a distance using mechanical blast waves propagated through the air. The contractor says that such a concussion “is always followed by amnesia for the actual moment of the accident.” He also states: “The blast duration would be in the order of a tenth of a second. Masking of a noise of this duration should not be difficult. It would be advantageous to establish the effectiveness of both of the above methods as a tool in brain-wash therapy.” P. 104, 105

MKULTRA Subproject 119 was a literature review which included a summary of existing information on “Techniques of activation of the human organism by remote electronic means.” According to a report inDefense Electronics, [64] consideration was given to using non-lethal weapons technology on David Koresh during the Branch Davidian siege in the spring of 1993. P. 105

Research on the ability of magnetic fields to facilitate the creation of false memories and altered states of consciousness is apparently funded by the Defense Intelligence Agency through the project cryptonym SLEEPING BEAUTY. “Sleeping Beauty was a Defense Department study of remote microwave min-influencing techniques.” [65] P. 116

There is abundant evidence in the public domain [66] that non-lethal weapons research is ongoing and funded annually in the tens of millions of dollars, or more. Given the fact that chemical and biological weapons, mind control drugs and radiation have been tested on unwitting civilian populations, it is possible that non-lethal weapons have also been tested on unwitting civilians. P 106.

A memorandum from Richard Helms, [67] Acting Deputy Director to Allen Dulles, Director of the CIA dated 3 April 1953 and entitled “Two Extremely Sensitive Research Programs” (MKULTRA and MKDELTA) includes the statement, “Even internally in CIA, as few individuals as possible should be aware of our interest in these fields and of the identity of those who are working for us. At present this results in ridiculous contracts, often with cut-outs [front organizations], which do not spell out the scope or intent of the work. Complete Government audits of such contracts are impossible for the same reason.” P. 125

To order Bluebird, and to get more information on mind control and other major cover-ups, see our Resource List. For other reliable resources on mind control, visit our mind control information center. We share this information as an invitation to work together for a better world. By inspiring others to join us in spreading the word, we can create a critical mass of people who demand that these activities be brought back under Congressional control.

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[14] Marks, J. The Search for the Manchurian Candidate. New York: W.W. Norton, 1988. To order this book, click here.

[15] CIA MORI ID 190684, pp. 1, 4. This is a declassified CIA document dealing with mind control. To verify the statement in the text, use the FOIA (Freedom of Information Act) request as described on our ten-page mind control summary at You should receive the government mind control CDs within a month of your request. Once you receive them, look up the MORI ID number listed. For free, unlimited access to these documents, go to the Black Vault Government Archive at To go directly to the CIA document quoted, for page 1, click here. For page 4, click here.

[16] CIA MORI ID 190527, pp. 1, 2. This is a declassified CIA document dealing with mind control. To verify the statement in the text, use the FOIA (Freedom of Information Act) request as described on our ten-page mind control summary at You should receive the government mind control CDs within a month of your request. Once you receive them, look up the MORI ID number listed. For free, unlimited access to these documents, go to the Black Vault Government Archive at To go directly to the above document, for page 1, click here. For page 2, click here.

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[24] CIA MORI ID 190691, p. 1. This is a declassified CIA document dealing with mind control. To verify the statement in the text, use the FOIA (Freedom of Information Act) request as described on our ten-page mind control summary at You should receive the government mind control CDs within a month of your request. Once you receive them, look up the MORI ID number listed. For free, unlimited access to these documents, go to the Black Vault Government Archive at To go directly to the page with the CIA document quoted, click here.

[25] Faden, R.R. Final Report. Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1995. The full report is available on the Department of Energy Website at:

[26] Collins, A. In the Sleep Room. The Story of CIA Brainwashing Experiments in Canada. Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1988/1998. To order this book, click here.

[27] Gillmor, D. I Swear By Apollo. Dr. Ewen Cameron and the CIA-Brainwashing Experiments.Montreal: Eden press, 1987. To order this book, click here.

[28] Marks, J. The Search for the Manchurian Candidate. New York: W.W. Norton, 1988. To order this book, click here.

[29] Nickson, E. The Monkey Puzzle Tree. Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994.

[30] Scheflin, A.W., & Opton, E.M. The Mind manipulators. New York: Paddington Press, 1978. To order this book, click here.

[31] Thomas, G. Journey into Madness. The Secret Story of Secret CIA Mind Control and Medical Abuse. New York: Bantam, 1989 (paperback 1990). To order this book, click here.

[32] Weinstein, H. Psychiatry and the CIA: Victims of Mind Control. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1990. To order this book, click here.

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[41] Estabrooks, G.H. Spiritism. New York: E.M Dutton, 1947. To order this book, click here.

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[45] Marks, J. The Search for the Manchurian Candidate. New York: W.W. Norton, 1988. To order this book, click here.

[46] Orne, M.T. The potential uses of hypnosis in interrogation. In A.D. Biderman (Ed.), The Manipulation of Human Behavior (pp. 169-215). New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1961. To order this book, click here.

[47] West, L.J. Dissociative reactions. In A.M. Freedman & H.I. Kaplan (Eds.), Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, pp. 885-889. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1967. To order this book, click here.

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[50] Faden, R.R. Final Report. Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1995. The full report is available on the Department of Energy Website at: For the two pages detailing Dr. Sweet’s experiments: Chapter five page 4, and page 5.

[51] Delgado, J.M.R. Evaluation of permanent implantation of electrodes within the brain.Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 7, 637-644, 1955

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[53] Delgado, J.M.R. Prolonged stimulation of brain in awake monkeys. Journal of Neurophysiology, 22, 458-475, 1959.

[54] Delgado, J.M.R. Emotional behavior in animals and humans. Psychiatric Research Reports, 12, 259-266, 1960

[55] Delgado, J.M.R. Social rank and radio-stimulated aggressiveness in monkeys. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 144, 383-390, 1967

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[57] Rosvold, H.E., & Delgado, J.M.R. The effect of delayed-alternation test performance of stimulating or destroying electrical structures within the frontal lobes of the monkey’s brain. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 49, 365-372, 1956.

[58] Delgado, J.M., Mark, V., Sweet, W., Ervin, F., Weiss, G., Bach-Y-Rita, G., & Hagiwara, R. Intracerebral radio stimulation and recording in completely free patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 147, 329-340, 1968.

[59] Mark, V.H., Ervin, F.R. Violence and the Brain. New York: Harper & Row, 1970. To order this book,click here.

[60] Heath, R.G. Electrical self-stimulation of the brain in man. American Journal of Psychiatry, 120, 571-577, 1963

[61] Heath, R.G. Pleasure and brain activity in man. Deep and surface electroencephalograms during orgasm.Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 151, 3-18, 1972.

[62] Heath, R.G., John, S.B. & Fontana, C.J. Stereotaxic implantation of electrodes in the human brain: A method for long-term study and treatment. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 23, 296-304, 1976.

[63] Moan, C.E., & Heath, R.G. Septal stimulation for the initiation of heterosexual activity in a homosexual male. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 3, 23-30, 1972.

[64] Tapscott, M. DOD, intel agencies look at Russian mind control technology, claims. Defense Electronics, July 13, 1993, pp. 17.

[65] Schnabel, J. Remote Viewers: The Secret History of America’s Psychic Spies. New York: Dell, 1997

[66] Pasternak, D. Wonder weapons. US News and World Report, July 7, 1997, pp. 38-46

[67] Memorandum from ADDP Helms to DCI Dulles, dated 3 April 1953, Tab A, pp. 1-2 (p. 30 on CDs), CIA MORI ID 17748. This is a declassified CIA document dealing with mind control. To verify the statement in the text, use the FOIA (Freedom of Information Act) request as described on our ten-page mind control summary at You should receive the government mind control CDs within a month of your request. Once you receive them, look up the MORI ID number listed. For free, unlimited access to these documents, go to the Black Vault Government Archive at To go directly to the CIA document quoted (p.30), click here.

Updated May 21, 2005
Colin A. Ross, Project “Bluebird”